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Which Fast Food Companies Are Polluting Our Oceans the Most?

Which Fast Food Companies Are Polluting Our Oceans the Most?


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When you eat at one of these fast food restaurants, you’re influencing more than just your own stomach.

Here’s something to chew on while you’re chowing down on your Whopper: how much impact, positive or negative, do fast food restaurants have on the environment? Considering that the fast food industry is one of the largest in America, and that $11.4 billion worth of non-recyclable packaging is wasted annually, the answer is: a significant impact. The National Resources Defense Council and As You Sow just examined the packaging and recycling practices of 47 fast-food and quick-service companies, and found that none of the companies met the NRDC’s standards for “best practices.”

At the top of the list for “better practices” was actually Starbucks and McDonald’s, despite the garbage accrued from the pile-up of coffee cups and takeout containers. Eight of the ranked fast-food companies landed in the worst category, meaning that their packaging and recycling practices left much to be desired. These companies included Arby’s, Quizno’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Jack in the Box, Dairy Queen, Domino’s, and Papa John’s.

The companies were ranked according the kind of packaging used, whether the packaging was recyclable, able to be composted, or made of recycled content, and what the companies are actually doing to promote the recycling of their packages, according to Care2.com.

“Single-use food and beverage packaging is a prime component of the plastic pollution in our oceans and waterways, which kills and injures marine life and poses a potential threat to human health,” Darby Hoover, senior resource specialist and packaging report project editor for the Natural Resources Defense Council said in a statement. “Companies have an opportunity and an obligation to curb this pollution. Better packaging design and improved support and adoption of recycling are key to turning the tide on this unnecessary waste.”

The Daily Meal has reached out to each of the top- and bottom-ranking companies and will update this story with their comments.


These 10 companies are flooding the planet with throwaway plastic

Join millions of people around the world to take action to stop plastic pollution.

Greenpeace volunteers in South Korea found this Coke bottle as part of a cleanup and brand audit of the popular Hongdae neighborhood in Seoul.

The equivalent of one truckload of plastic enters the ocean every minute — but where is it all coming from? Up until recently, we weren’t sure. But to solve the plastic pollution crisis, we knew we needed to arm ourselves with the best information possible.

So, together with our partners in the Break Free From Plastic movement , we enlisted the help of 10,000 volunteers across 42 countries to embark on the world’s most ambitious plastic cleanup and brand audit project yet. Nine months, six continents, 239 cleanup events, and more than 187,000 pieces of trash later, we now have the most comprehensive snapshot to date of how corporations are contributing to the global plastic pollution problem.

They are, in order from most to least commonly found in global brand audits:

  1. Coca-Cola
  2. PepsiCo
  3. Nestlé
  4. Danone
  5. Mondelez International
  6. Procter & Gamble
  7. Unilever
  8. Perfetti van Melle
  9. Mars Incorporated
  10. Colgate-Palmolive

And that’s just the top ten out of hundreds of multinational brands contributing to plastic pollution across the globe.


What is the biggest source of pollution in the ocean?

When large tracts of land are plowed, the exposed soil can erode during rainstorms. Much of this runoff flows to the sea, carrying with it agricultural fertilizers and pesticides.

Eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from the land. One of the biggest sources is called nonpoint source pollution, which occurs as a result of runoff. Nonpoint source pollution includes many small sources, like septic tanks, cars, trucks, and boats, plus larger sources, such as farms, ranches, and forest areas. Millions of motor vehicle engines drop small amounts of oil each day onto roads and parking lots. Much of this, too, makes its way to the sea.

Some water pollution actually starts as air pollution, which settles into waterways and oceans. Dirt can be a pollutant. Top soil or silt from fields or construction sites can run off into waterways, harming fish and wildlife habitats.

Nonpoint source pollution can make river and ocean water unsafe for humans and wildlife. In some areas, this pollution is so bad that it causes beaches to be closed after rainstorms.

More than one-third of the shellfish-growing waters of the United States are adversely affected by coastal pollution.

Correcting the harmful effects of nonpoint source pollution is costly. Each year, millions of dollars are spent to restore and protect areas damaged or endangered by nonpoint source pollutants. NOAA works with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Agriculture, and other federal and state agencies to develop ways to control nonpoint source pollution. These agencies work together to monitor, assess, and limit nonpoint source pollution that may result naturally and by human actions.

NOAA's Coastal Zone Management Program is helping to create special nonpoint source pollution control plans for each coastal state participating in the program. When nonpoint source pollution does cause problems, NOAA scientists help track down the exact causes and find solutions.


The 15 Worst Companies For The Planet

For all the marketing around green, there's no escaping the fact that commerce wreaks havoc on the planet.

As the following list of the 15 worst companies for the environment makes very clear, there's also not much consumers can do to avoid the worst offenders.

The worst companies for the planet, as determined by Newsweek, are mostly utilities. It's hard to live without electricity. One of the few exceptions is ConAgra, the giant packaged food company. If you go to your kitchen right now odds are you'll find a ton of ConAgra products.

And it's not just our food and our energy that come from these environmentally unfriendly companies. Our pension funds and mutual funds are invested in them.

GreenBiz: An analysis of the publicly available data shows that the 50 largest investors in the companies receiving the lowest scores — those ranked 490 through 500 on Newsweek's list — include three leading public employee pension funds as well as major mutual funds that hold millions of Americans' retirement accounts, including (in alphabetical order) American Century, Fidelity, T. Rowe Price, TIAA-CREF, and Vanguard Group. All told, the 50 largest investors have sunk more than $55 billion into those worst-rated firms.

As Joel Makower at GreenBiz reports, all the money tied up in these companies is with institutional investors. If people are really worried about the environment, then they have to pressure these groups, even more than the companies themselves to get something done.


7 Companies Committed to Cleaning Up Plastic Pollution

One to One Pledge: Norton Point pledges to remove one pound of ocean plastic for every pair of sunglasses it sells.

Plastic trash has created a global problem. Luckily, some global companies are pitching in to help clean it up, use it up, and stop more of it from being thrown away. In honor of Earth Day 2018 and Earth Day Network’s “End Plastic Pollution” campaign, here are seven companies committed to cleaning up plastic pollution:

Adidas – Adidas has partnered with the non-profit Parley for the Oceans to develop a shoe made from recycled marine plastic. The “UltraBoost” sneaker uses an average of 11 plastic bottles, incorporating recycled plastic into shoe laces, the webbing and lining on heels, and sock liner covers. UltraBoosts are ultra popular – one million of the shoes sold in 2017. No wonder Eric Liedtke, the head of Adidas’ Global Brands unit, told the SXSW conference that the company wants to produce all its products from recycled ocean plastic by 2024. Meanwhile, Adidas has also started phasing out plastic bags in its 2,900 retail stores worldwide.

Method – Method made its mark on the cleaning products world by creating cleansers that contained safer ingredients in stylish bottles consumers wouldn’t mind keeping on their countertops. The new Method bottles broke new ground again by being the first to be fashioned from plastic waste collected from the ocean. Here’s why – and how – they did it.

Norton Point – This sunglasses manufacturer exists to make sustainable sunglasses from ocean plastic and plant-based materials. Norton Point collects plastic from the waters in and around Haiti, then processes it into pellets and molds them into frames for The Tide Sunglasses collection. The Massachusetts-based company also gives back 5% of net profits to global clean-up, education and remediation practices.“We believe that plastic flowing into our oceans is one of our greatest environmental challenges,” company co-founder Ryan Schoenike has said. “We have chosen to become part of the solution.” To that end, Norton Point has promised to clean up one pound of plastic from the ocean for every product it sells.

West Paw – Given that ocean plastic harms so many aquatic animals, there’s something sweet about the fact that West Paw uses recycled plastic for the toys and beds it makes for the land animals we love the most – our pets. The company’s “IntelliLoft” eco-fiber is stuffed into dog pillows and beds, and woven into plush toys like the cute Madison Moose. To date, using IntelliLoft has helped West Paw divert 12.6 million plastic bottles from the landfill – and that’s not something to bark at.

ClifBar – The power bar company made a significant commitment to zero waste fittingly on Earth Day 2001. Initially, they switched to recycled paper and discouraged disposable dishes. Today, they’ve stopped shrink-wrapping the boxes that contain their bars, and are making the boxes themselves from 100 percent recycled paperboard. The company’s SHOT BLOKS packaging was redesigned to save 25,000 pounds of packaging a year. By the way, ClifBar is no slouch on the climate change front, either. Its 115,000 square foot headquarters is LEED Platinum certified. A majority of its electricity and 70% of its hot water come from solar. And the innovator’s COOL HOME PROGRAM provides employees with up to $1,000 annually to make eco-improvements to their homes.

Waitrose – The venerable British grocery store chain has committed to removing all disposable coffee cups – including their plastic lids – from its shops by Autumn, 2018. “We believe in doing everything we can to protect our environment,” declares the company on its website. “While we know that we need to do more, removing disposable cups is the right thing to do.” Waitrose says the move will save more than 52 million cups each year, as well as 221 tonnes of plastic and 665 tonnes of paper annually. Waitrose’s action is in stark contrast to that of Starbuck’s, which has become the target of the “Break Free From Plastic” global campaign demanding that the coffee company take more responsibility for its contribution to the growing plastic pollution crisis.

Rubber Maid – It’s harder to clean up pollution than to prevent it from happening in the first place. Good thing Rubber Maid is around. The company has long been in the business of selling reusable food containers that can replace plastic wrap, plastic lunch baggies, plastic water bottles, plastic cleanser bottles…you get the point. But Rubber Maid doesn’t only focus on reducing plastic waste. Its Green Living website page also links to the federal government’s Energy Savers website, provides tips on how to recycle, and can help you live “simply without clutter.” All good!

Want to learn more? Earth Day Network has compiled this terrific primer and action tool kit that even gives you a calculator so you can see how much plastic you really use every day. And learn what plastic has to do with clean air and why you should care about ditching plastic pollution.


Marine Pollution

Marine pollution is a combination of chemicals and trash, most of which comes from land sources and is washed or blown into the ocean. This pollution results in damage to the environment, to the health of all organisms, and to economic structures worldwide.

Biology, Ecology, Earth Science, Oceanography

Water Pollution

Pollutants are dumped into the ocean. This waste affects the daily life of fish and other marine creatures.

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Marine pollution is a growing problem in today&rsquos world. Our ocean is being flooded with two main types of pollution: chemicals and trash.

Chemical contamination, or nutrient pollution, is concerning for health, environmental, and economic reasons. This type of pollution occurs when human activities, notably the use of fertilizer on farms, lead to the runoff of chemicals into waterways that ultimately flow into the ocean. The increased concentration of chemicals, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, in the coastal ocean promotes the growth of algal blooms, which can be toxic to wildlife and harmful to humans. The negative effects on health and the environment caused by algal blooms hurt local fishing and tourism industries.

Marine trash encompasses all manufactured products&mdashmost of them plastic&mdashthat end up in the ocean. Littering, storm winds, and poor waste management all contribute to the accumulation of this debris, 80 percent of which comes from sources on land. Common types of marine debris include various plastic items like shopping bags and beverage bottles, along with cigarette butts, bottle caps, food wrappers, and fishing gear. Plastic waste is particularly problematic as a pollutant because it is so long-lasting. Plastic items can take hundreds of years to decompose.

This trash poses dangers to both humans and animals. Fish become tangled and injured in the debris, and some animals mistake items like plastic bags for food and eat them. Small organisms feed on tiny bits of broken-down plastic, called microplastic, and absorb the chemicals from the plastic into their tissues. Microplastics are less than five millimeters (0.2 inches) in diameter and have been detected in a range of marine species, including plankton and whales. When small organisms that consume microplastics are eaten by larger animals, the toxic chemicals then become part of their tissues. In this way, the microplastic pollution migrates up the food chain, eventually becoming part of the food that humans eat.

Solutions for marine pollution include prevention and cleanup. Disposable and single-use plastic is abundantly used in today&rsquos society, from shopping bags to shipping packaging to plastic bottles. Changing society&rsquos approach to plastic use will be a long and economically challenging process. Cleanup, in contrast, may be impossible for some items. Many types of debris (including some plastics) do not float, so they are lost deep in the ocean. Plastics that do float tend to collect in large &ldquopatches&rdquo in ocean gyres. The Pacific Garbage Patch is one example of such a collection, with plastics and microplastics floating on and below the surface of swirling ocean currents between California and Hawaii in an area of about 1.6 million square kilometers (617,763 square miles), although its size is not fixed. These patches are less like islands of trash and, as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says, more like flecks of microplastic pepper swirling around an ocean soup. Even some promising solutions are inadequate for combating marine pollution. So-called &ldquobiodegradable&rdquo plastics often break down only at temperatures higher than will ever be reached in the ocean.

Nonetheless, many countries are taking action. According to a 2018 report from the United Nations, more than sixty countries have enacted regulations to limit or ban the use of disposable plastic items.

Pollutants are dumped into the ocean. This waste affects the daily life of fish and other marine creatures.


Ocean pollution:11 facts you need to know

So how does trash get into the ocean? It’s dumped, pumped, spilled, leaked and even washed out with our laundry. Each year, we expose the world’s waterways to an increasing variety of pollutants — plastic debris, chemical runoff, crude oil and more.

Fortunately, it’s not too late to clean up our act. Share the dirty truth about ocean pollution and help make a difference.

Oil spills aren’t the big(gest) problem.
Headline-grabbing oil spills account for just 12 percent of the oil in our oceans. Three times as much oil is carried out to sea via runoff from our roads, rivers and drainpipes.

More plastic than fish.
Eight million metric tons: That’s how much plastic we dump into the oceans each year. That’s about 17.6 billion pounds — or the equivalent of nearly 57,000 blue whales — every single year. By 2050, ocean plastic will outweigh all of the ocean’s fish.

© shaunl

5 garbage patches.
There’s so much junk at sea, the debris has formed giant garbage patches. There are five of them around the world, and the largest — the Great Pacific Garbage Patch — includes an estimated 1.8 trillion pieces of trash and covers an area twice the size of Texas.

© Johnny Lye

Plastic poses a double danger.
Ocean trash can be broken into smaller pieces — known as microplastic — by sun exposure and wave action, after which it can find its way into the food chain. When it eventually degrades (which takes 400 years for most plastic), the process releases chemicals that further contaminate the sea.

© Fred Froese

China, Indonesia top the trash tally.
More plastic in the ocean comes from China and Indonesia than anywhere else — together, they account for one-third of plastic pollution. In fact, 80 percent of plastic pollution comes from just 20 countries, including the United States.

© Lucas Bustamante

Pollution is in fashion (literally).
With each load of laundry, more than 700,000 synthetic microfibers are washed into our waterways. Unlike natural materials such as cotton or wool, these plasticized fibers do not break down. One study showed that synthetic microfibers make up as much as 85 percent of all beach trash.

Most ocean trash sits on the bottom.
As unsightly as ocean pollution is, what we can’t see may be worse: 70 percent of ocean garbage actually sinks to the seafloor, meaning we’re unlikely to ever be able to clean it up.

© Mayumi Terao

Even nutrients can become harmful.
When dumped at sea in large amounts, agricultural nutrients such as nitrogen can stimulate the explosive growth of algae. When the algae decomposes, oxygen in the surrounding waters is consumed, creating a vast dead zone that can result in mass die-offs of fish and other marine life.

© CI/Emmeline Johansen

The number of dead zones is growing.
In 2004, scientists counted 146 hypoxic zones (areas of such low oxygen concentration that animal life suffocates and dies) in the world’s oceans. By 2008, that number jumped to 405. In 2017, in the Gulf of Mexico, oceanographers detected a dead zone nearly the size of New Jersey — the largest dead zone ever measured.

© Damien Roué/Flickr Creative Commons

The oceans are losing mussel mass.
One effect of greenhouse emissions is increased ocean acidification, which makes it more difficult for bivalves such as mussels, clams and oysters to form shells, decreasing their likelihood of survival, upsetting the food chain and impacting the multibillion-dollar shellfish industry.

© NASA

We’re making a racket down there.
Noise pollution generated by shipping and military activity can cause cellular damage to a class of invertebrates that includes jellyfish and anemones. These animals are a vital food source for tuna, sharks, sea turtles and other creatures.​​​​​​


Which Countries Create the Most Ocean Trash?

Robert Lee Hotz

SAN JOSE, Calif.—China and Indonesia are likely the top sources of plastic reaching the oceans, accounting for more than a third of the plastic bottles, bags and other detritus washed out to sea, an international research team of environmental scientists reported Thursday.

Marine biologists and ocean activists have grown alarmed about the seaborne plastic that fouls shorelines and clogs currents from the Arctic to the South Pacific. But the actual amount and source of it hasn’t been known because consumer habits and pollution-control practices vary so widely world-wide.

In a new accounting of global garbage, researchers in the U.S. and Australia led by Jenna Jambeck, an environmental engineer at the University of Georgia, calculated the share that each of 192 countries could have contributed to plastic waste in the oceans. Their study is based on consumer data and waste-management information covering coastal populations around the world. The U.S. ranked 20th by the researchers’ estimates, deemed responsible for just under 1% of the mismanaged plastic waste.

They reported their calculations in the journal Science on Thursday and presented them at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science here.

All told, Dr. Jambeck and her colleagues calculated that people living within 50 kilometers (30 miles)of the coast in these countries generated a total of 275 million metric tons of plastic waste in 2010. A small but significant fraction of it—between 4.8 million and 12.7 million tons of discarded bottles, bags, straws, packaging and other items—ended up in the world’s oceans.


Top Marine Debris Items Found in Cleanups Over the Last 25 Years

How Was It Measured?

The Clean Water goal is unusual because its four components--Trash Pollution, Nutrient Pollution, Chemical Pollution and Pathogen Pollution--indicate both Status and Pressure. Low levels of those factors produce a high goal score, but high levels produce a low score. For example, perfectly clean water has no trash pollution, so Status for this component is expressed as 1 - Trash Pollution. Status for the other components is similarly expressed. Beginning in 2015 input data for Trash was obtained from Eriksen et al. (2014). Input sources for data used to calculate Status and Pressure scores for the other components are listed in Table S23 of Halpern et al. 2015. The overall goal score is the geometric mean of the scores for the four components, which are weighted equally.

Use of the geometric mean magnifies the importance of a very bad score for any one of the components, matching public perception that very high levels of a single pollutant would make waters seem ‘too dirty’ to enjoy for recreational or aesthetic purposes.

All pressures, including marine trash, have different affects on different goals. For each goal, the affect of each pressure is weighted 'low' (1), 'medium' (2) or 'high' (3). The actual data-derived value of the pressure is then multiplied by the weight assigned to it for that goal. That process is repeated for each pressure-goal combination. The sum of those values divided by 3 (the (the maximum pressure-goal value) expresses the total affect of that pressure on the goal.

Marine trash is a pressure for several of the Ocean Health Index goals. Marine trash has high effect (weight = 3) on Tourism & Recreation, Coastal Livelihoods and Economies (Tourism), Sense of Place (Lasting Special Places), and Clean Waters. It has low effect (weight = 1) on Coastal Livelihoods and Economies (Marine Cetacean Watching), Sense of Place (Iconic Species), and Biodiversity (Species).


Corporate Pollution

Have you ever passed a body of water and seen disgusting trash floating on top of it? Was the water a repulsive brown sludge because of excessive amounts of sewage in it? If you haven’t experienced this, I have. I am on the crew team for my school. We experience the atrocious sewage and trash dumped into the rivers every day. We row on two rivers in Washington, DC: the Anacostia and the Potomac. These rivers are home to all kinds of wildlife and are practically home to the rowers as well. The day before a major regatta, my team was taking a boat out for practice, when the police stopped us. They told us 200,000 gallons of sewage was dumped into our river causing us not to row because the bacteria level was too high. Upset, I went home and did some research. It turns out that most of the pollution dumped into the rivers was caused by large companies rather than by individuals. I also found out that the government was not doing enough to stop it!

Not only are the polluted rivers not safe for people, but they also are marring the reputation of our nation’s capital. When the rivers are filthy, it gives tourists the impression that America is disgusting. Even president Lyndon Johnson stated, “The Potomac River is a national disgrace.” If the president thinks that the river is a disgrace, imagine what foreign visitors must think. Unfortunately, the Potomac River is not the only river in the US with pollution problems. For example, the Cuyahoga River in Ohio caught fire because of industrial waste. Think about that, the river caught on fire. Though people in the US have grown more environmentally cautious and conscientious, the government is not taking nearly enough action to prevent pollution.

Large companies are not thinking about the environmental consequences when they dispose of their unwanted waste. It is easier for the corporation to dump their waste into the local waterway than to dispose of it properly. When caught, the government fines them. However, a small fine is no issue for large-scale corporations. They just pay the fine and continue to dump their leftovers into the water. This brings the idea that there should be larger fines and personal accountability for corporations that pollute our waters.

Although fines should be raised, the government may point to policy reasons why there should not be larger fines for corporations. For example, the government maintains a corporation-protecting policy, claiming, for example, that companies deserve a right to privacy via the Constitution. Secondly, the government points to possible bankruptcy as the result of fines, which, in turn, leads to unemployment. Finally, the government may also believe that companies are not causing THAT much harm to the environment or that large-scale companies may not be the only factors of pollution.

Some people feel that the government shouldn’t get involved in a company’s business. The cornerstone of our society is that we live in a free country, and have the right to privacy by definition then, the government should not get involved or at the very least, be involved to the minimum extent possible. However, the government won’t be able to prevent pollution until it finds out the exact cause of the pollution in the company. Once it finds out what is causing the pollution, it could then find a way to get rid of the pollution. In addition, the government represents our nation and therefore must have its citizens’ best interest in mind. It has to care about our general welfare, which is stated in the Preamble of the Constitution. The government can’t take care of our health unless it tries to prevent pollution by raising fines.

Another idea that could be going through citizens’ minds is that companies may go bankrupt if fines are increased, which may cause people to become unemployed. It could be argued that America is already in a significant amount of debt and there would be no positive outcome if more people lost their jobs. Still, if companies are causing that much pollution and affecting our health, then maybe that company should go out of business. Our health should come before their profits. Besides, there are other jobs that people can do that don’t cause as much contamination. At the same time, there are those employees who are unaware of the pollution, who work for the company but are not involved with the part that pollutes. Therefore, instead of shutting down the entire company and causing EVERYBODY in that business to lose their job, there should also be personal accountability, such as jail time, for those employees who are are responsible for the conduct of the company – such as the CEO.

In addition to bankruptcy, there is the belief that companies are not causing THAT much harm to the environment so the government should not charge them. In reality, companies are causing a TREMENDOUS amount of environmental issues. The amount of pollution companies generates is so much that it is messing up the environmental food web as seen in a study in 1995. For example, a large fish’s diet consists of smaller fish that eats insects that eat plants. If one of those species becomes extinct then the other species has less of a chance to survive. If the insect goes extinct due to pollution then the smaller fish will not be able to eat and so on. So, how does this relate to citizens?

An example can be seen in the Exxon Oil Spill. Exxon was transporting oil across a Sound in Alaska when they leaked10.9 million gallons of oil into the water. It formed a barrier layer across the water. The Exxon Company thought it was just one layer of oil and would not do much damage. However, that one layer of oil prevented sunlight from entering, which prevented photosynthesis from occurring in the aquatic plants, causing them to die. As a result, the entire food chain was impacted eventually affecting people. Humans consume between 1 trillion and 2.7 trillion pounds of fish each year. If fish were extinct, humans would have to find an alternate source for food. Pollution that messes up the food supply can be eliminated or minimized if there are higher fines or personal accountability for polluting companies.

Besides harming the food web, many human health problems arise with water pollution. According to dosomething.org, children and teens in polluted environments often carry about 1,000 parasitic worms in their body at any given time, causing a child to die every 20 seconds from a water related disease. A typical school classroom has around 25 students. If a child dies every 20 seconds from a water related disease, it would take a little over 8 minutes for everyone in that class to die. As if parasitic worms aren’t enough, the world’s water pollution and sanitation crisis claims more lives through disease than any war can claim through the use of weapons.

According to the Huffington Post, the war in Afghanistan has killed around 2,000 Coalition troops. More than 2,000 people in the United States are dying from water pollution – think about that, more people in the US are dying from water pollution than war. In fact, at any given time, half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by patients with water-borne illnesses. Water borne illnesses, by definition, are diseases that spread through un-drinkable water. This situation can easily be prevented by lowering the amount of pollution in the environment. Lower the amount of pollution by raising fines and holding people personally accountable.

There are many more reasons why the government should raise the fines than why it should not. It will control the amount of pollution by keeping a careful eye on companies, prevent companies from going out of business by raising personal accountability, and allow the food chain to continue in the normal way. Encourage your friends and family members to prevent pollution in any way possible whether they are a big company or not. Remember, you don’t have to be a big business to make a big difference.


Watch the video: Forsøg med nitrat (May 2022).